Sunday, March 1, 2015


Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have been integrated as one
of the key approaches to provide the peak data rate, average throughput, and system
The operation mode of multiple transmit antennas at the cell site

  1. spatial division multiplexing (SDM)
  2. precoding
  3. transmit diversity (TD).
Base on the allocation of the multiple transmission streams in MIMO, the different types of MIMO mode are 

single user (SU)-MIMO 
multiuser (MU)-MIMO

Downlink MIMO
For the LTE downlink, a 2x2 configuration for MIMO is assumed as
baseline configuration, i.e. 2 transmit antennas at the base station and 2
receive antennas at the terminal side. Configurations with 4 antennas are
also being considered.

Uplink MIMO
Uplink MIMO schemes for LTE will differ from downlink MIMO schemes to
take into account terminal complexity issues. For the uplink, MU-MIMO can
be used. Multiple user terminals may transmit simultaneously on the same
resource block. This is also referred to as spatial domain multiple access
(SDMA). The scheme requires only one transmit antenna at UE side which
is a big advantage. The UEs sharing the same resource block have to apply
mutually orthogonal pilot patterns.

Sunday, June 27, 2010

Relay Node for LTE - Advanced

The Relays just contain L1 and L2 of the eNodeB , not the complete LTE eNodeB stack.

  1. Layer 3 (RRC) is terminated in Relay Node for the (Relay Node –UE) interface.
  2. L1/L2 signaling (CQI, HARQ, etc) is performed between Relay Node and UE.
  3. Relay Node has their own PCI (physical cell identity).
  4. Increase the throughput 
There are two different types of Relay's.

  1. Type-1 (Non-Transparency)
  2. Type-2 (Transparency)

Type-I relay will help the UE to access the eNodeB that are far from the coverage of the eNodeB. So the Type–I relay will transmit the common reference signal and the control information for the eNB and will help the eNodeB in extending the signals and service coverage area. Type-I Relay mainly perform IP packet forwarding in the (layer 3) and can make some contributions to the overall system capacity by enabling communication services and data transmissions for remote UE units.

Type-II Relay can help a local UE unit, which is located within the coverage of an eNB and has a direct communication link with the eNB, to improve its service quality and link capacity. So a Type-II RS does not transmit the common reference signal or the control information, and its main objective is to increase the overall system capacity by achieving multipath diversity and transmission gains for local UE unit

Challenges in relay nodes
  1. Relays create extra “cell-edge”

  2. Relays cause extra time delay

  3. Multiple relay nodes can have different duplexing schedules which create interference.

LTE Relay and Repeater


  • Just amplifies the signal and transmit it

LTE Relays

Not just amplifies the signal , it also decodes the information and encode it back amplified .

Tuesday, June 1, 2010

LTE is no more 3.9G , it will be known as 4G

LTE is officially know as the 3.9G not as 4G, But in many posts, blog's and discussions , you might have seen that LTE will referred as 4G .In the recent LTE World Summit and from the news, etc. it seems that the marketing guys won and LTE would be known as 4G.

2G = GSM
2.5G = GPRS
2.75G = EDGE
3.5G = HSDPA
3.75G = HSUPA
3.8G = HSPA+
3.85G = 'HSPA+' + MIMO
3.9G = ??
4G = LTE

Source :Zahid Ghadialy's Blog

Tuesday, May 25, 2010

My 3G experience

My BSNL 3G(UMTS) speed reaches 220 kB/s , check this screen shot ....
which shows 220 kB/s which is 1802.24 Kbps
Or 1.8 Mbps ::: 0.22 MB/sec

Maximum supported speed by the Bsnl (UMTS)base station is
384 kB/s is 3145.73 Kbps
Or 3.15 Mbps ::: 0.38 MB/sec

Coollllllllllllll !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Friday, May 21, 2010

India 3G licence ended with bid licence touching Rs 16,751 crore

India 3G Auction winners Results declared. After 83 rounds and 34 days and 1 of intense bidding. The total bid price of Rs 16,750.58 crore on the final day. 3G spectrum auction including amount payable by MTNL and BSNL will earn revenue of Rs 67718.95 crores to the government. The 3G auction for 3G mobile licence ended with RCom, Bharti and Aircel bagging 13 circles each. In this 3G auction no single operator managed to bag all 22 circles on offer.

The Indian government on Friday approved the results of the auction of spectrum for third generation (3G) telecom services and asked the winning firms to make payments by May 31.

The winning firms will be allowed to offer 3G services on a commercial basis from Sep 1.

Source: MediaNama

Thursday, March 18, 2010

Qualcomm plans to deploy LTE in India & to Bid In India Wireless Broadband Spectrum Auction

We are very pleased to participate in this process and now that the process has started. We have applied to participate in the broadband wireless access auction in 2.3 gigabytes. There is a specific technology called LTE that we have. This technology lies on top of the 3G networks that are already deployed in India or will be deployed after the auction.

We as a technology provider have come in to accelerate the deployment of broadband not just for 3G with 3G operators already in the mix but to create a future path for 3G networks to evolve in complimentary ways.

Money Control

Sunday, March 14, 2010

Motorola 2033 Phone capture memories directly from user’s brain

The 2033 concept would allow for the device to capture memories directly from the user’s brain, through a process Motorola calls "organic memory capture". And if that wasn't enough, the 2033 concept would also allow users' to completely augment their eyesight through a process called Second Sight.

>> Communication could be ambient, always on and people could live online
>> Computers and mobile devices could be embedded in the ordinary
>> "Using Software" could vanish; only interface and human interaction would remain
>> Device interaction could become natural, predictive and fluid so people could be free to relax
>> Molecular manufacturing could revolutionize production
>> Technology could outpace the brainĂ¢€™s ability to absorb, intelligent 'agents' filter
>> Objects could access 'The Cloud' at will


LTE Handset Expected Mid of 2011

Verizon, AT&T and over three dozen other wireless companies have signed on to the Voice over LTE initiative, expected to speed deployment of Long Term Evolution phones.

The network is currently being trialed in Boston and Seattle. Based on the trials, the network is capable of peak download speeds of 40 to 50Mbps and peak upload speeds of 20 to 25Mbps. The tests have also demonstrated average LTE data rates of 5-12 Mbps on the downlink and 2-5 Mbps on the uplink.

"Handsets are coming faster than we anticipated," he said. Ericsson is supplying infrastructure for many LTE networks, including Verizon's.

By W. David Gardner
by Jennifer Johnson

Monday, January 25, 2010

3G auction wont be delayed ,auction on Feb 13 and services to start by Sep 1

The country’s third-generation wireless spectrum auction for spectrum sale will start on February 12 and services would start from September 1 this year, reports CNBC-TV18 quoting sources.From today the 3G draft of the notice inviting bids or applications will be issued by the ministry.

Paying fees will be in two phases for the winning bidders . The phase 1 winning bidders make a payment of 25% of the bid amount within five days after the auction and the balance payment within 15 days. The government plans to auction three 3G slots nationwide.

The 3G auction fund, the ministry says, may be a little less than Rs 35,000 crore.

Spectrum wil be assigned within 15 days from the date of payment, the government intends to add more 3G slot in January 2013.

The final date for applications will be received by Jan25th, the pre-qualification for bidders will takes place on February 5. Notice inviting bids is likely to be issued by this week and would specify exact spectrum slots .

Thursday, January 14, 2010

fifth generation - 5G wirreless ?

One of the features is that you will be able to smell the background of the other person on the phone. Say if someone is cooking something and he wants you to smell it, he will be able to do that. Other feature is that you can speak without enitting any voice. This could be used in case you are in Library (or in Exam Hall?) and you cannot speak out loudly. You will be able to communicate just by moving your mouth. Please note that all these features are at initial stage of research and is not viable long time to come.

5G should be a more intelligent technology that interconnects the entire world without limits.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

IMT-Advanced = 4G = LTE-Advanced = 5G

The 3GPP TSG RAN workshop on IMT-Advanced was held (in the week after the RAN WG meetings) on April 7-8, 2008 in Shenzhen, China hosted by ZTE Corporations. The main conclusions from the workshop are:

* LTE Advanced shall be an evolution of LTE.
o LTE terminal shall be supported in LTE-advanced networks.
o An LTE-Advanced terminal can work in an LTE part of the network.
o Primary focus of LTE-Advanced is low mobility users.
* All requirements/targets in TR25.913 apply to LTE-Advanced.LTE-Advanced requirements shall fulfill IMT-Advanced requirements within the ITU-R time plan

* For LTE-Advanced:
o Same inter-RAT interworking capability with at least same performance as in LTE Release 8
o Intra-RAT handover performance shall be same or better than LTE Release 8
* As a way forward for LTE-Advanced it was agreed:
o TSG RAN email reflector for LTE-Advanced will be established (the new reflector is called 3GPP_TSG_RAN_LTE_ADVANCED and it is available since 21.04.2008)
§ Email discussions on LTE-Advanced requirements will be started on this reflector (moderator: Takehiro Nakamura, NTT DoCoMo, LTE-Advanced SI rapporteur).
o A new TR will be created (after the workshop it was decided to create TR 36.913 "Requirements for LTE-Advanced") to include LTE-Advanced requirements and updated by RAN WG meetings in May 2008 referring to structure of 25.913 and outcome of the workshop.(note: Allocation of the TR number was done after the workshop.)
o Review of the outcome of this workshop and kick-off of discussions about LTE-Advanced requirements and technical solutions in RAN WG meetings in May 2008 in Kansas City.The goal is to complete LTE-Advanced requirements at RAN #40 in Prague end of May 2008 according to agreed work plan (i.e. TR 36.913 will be provided to RAN #40).

Saturday, December 26, 2009

Future Mobile Technology

This is what I wish the internet search will be able to do with a mobile device in the NEAR future. Touch screen, built in camera, scanner, WiFi, google map (hopefully google earth), google search, image search… all in one device. Like this way, when you can see a building through it, it gives you the image search result right on the spot.

Choose a building and touch a floor and it tells you more details of the building.
Well, it doesn’t have to be a building, but it can be any object you see. You can use it when you want to know a car model, an insect name, what kind of food is served at a restaurant and how much, who built a bridge, etc. etc. But as a designer myself, I hope it’s able to tell me a name of a font of the type I see, the size, color (in RGB), and so on.

It would be much easier to read a real book. You can use the dictionary, wikipedia, thesaurus and anything else available on the web. What do you think?

Is LTE a 4G technology?

Long-Term (Radio) Evolution or LTE is also part of 3G technology. Its a 3GPP research item for Release 8. Its also known as 3.9G or “Super 3G” by some researchers. Its planned to be commercialised in 2009. It aims at peak data rates of 200 Mbps (DL) and 100 Mbps (UL).

Super-3G' is an intermediate stage between 3G and 4G. In this stage the operators are planning to achieve data rates upto 100Mbps when travelling at speeds upto 100Kmph.

The entire network would be packet switched (IP based). All switches would be digital. Higher bandwidths would be available which would make cheap data transfer possible. The network security would be much tighter. Also QoS will imrpove. More effecient algorithms at the Physical layer will reduce the Inter-channel Interference and Co-channel Interference.

When is the 4G Technology going to be launched?

NTT Docomo is planning to launch 4G sevices in Japan around 2010-2015. Earlier it announced that it would be launching the service in 2006-2008. But at the same time it has said that the data transfer would be maximum of 20Mbps. Recently they have started calling this intermediate launch as 'Super-3G'.

NTT-DoCoMo is jointly developing 4G with HP. A the same time Korean companies like Samsung and LG are also looking into 4G. In Europe companies like Siemens are also working on this. Recently Japan, China and South Korea has started working together on the technology and they plan to standardise it together.